Jharkhand – Wikipedia

Jharkhand – Wikipedia

Jharkhand (/ˈdʒɑːrkənd/; Hindi: [d͡ʒʱɑːɾkʰəɳɖ]; meaning ‘the land of forests’) is a state in eastern India. The state shares its border with the states of West Bengal to the east, Chhattisgarh to the west, Uttar Pradesh to the northwest, Bihar to the north and Odisha to the south. It has an area of 79,716 km2 (30,779 sq mi). It is the 15th largest state by area, and the 14th largest by population. Hindi is the official language of the state. The city of Ranchi is its capital and Dumka its sub-capital. The state is known for its waterfalls, hills and holy places; Baidyanath Dham, Parasnath, Dewri and Rajrappa are major religious sites. The state was formed in 2000, from the territory that had previously been part of Bihar.

Jharkhand suffers from what is sometimes termed a resource curse: it accounts for more than 40% of the mineral resources of India, but 39.1% of its population is below the poverty line and 19.6% of children under five years of age are malnourished.Jharkhand is primarily rural, with about 24% of its population living in cities. It is amongst the leading states in terms of economic growth. In 2017–18, the GDP growth rate of state was at 10.22%.

Etymology

The word “Jhar” means ‘forest’ and “Khand” means ‘land’ in various Indo-Aryan languages. Thus “Jharkhand” means forest land.

During Medieval period, the region was known as Jharkhand. According to Bhavishya Purana (1200 CE), Jharkhand was one of the seven Pundra desa. The name is first found on a 13th century copper plate in Kendrapada, Odisha region from the reign of Narasimha Deva II of Eastern Ganga dynasty. Forest land from Baidhnath dham to Puri was known as Jharkhand. In Akbarnama, from Panchet in the east to Ratanpur to west, Rohtasgarh to the north and the frontier of Odisha to the south was known as Jharkhand.

History

Ancient period


The region has been inhabited since the Mesolithic-Chalcolithic period, as shown by several ancient cave paintings. Stone tools have been discovered from Chota Nagpur plateau region which is from Mesolithic and Neolithic period.[19] There are ancient cave paintings in Isko, Hazaribagh district which are from Meso-chalcolithic period (9000–5000 BCE).[20] During 2nd millennium BCE the use of Copper tools spread in Chota Nagpur Plateau and these find complex are known as the Copper Hoard Culture. In Kabra-Kala mound at the confluence of Son and North Koel rivers in Palamu district various antiquities and art objects have found which are from Neolithic to the medieval period and the pot-sherds of Redware, black and red ware, black ware, black slipped ware and NBP ware are from Chalcolithic to the late medieval period. Several iron slags, microliths, and potsherds have been discovered from Singhbhum district which are from 1400 BCE according to carbon dating age. The region was ruled by many empires and dynasties including Nanda, Maurya and Gupta during ancient period.

During the age of Mahajanpadas around 500 BCE, Jharkhand state was a part of Magadha and Anga.[citation needed] In the Mauryan period, this region was ruled by a number of states, which were collectively known as the Atavika (forest) states. These states accepted the suzerainty of the Maurya empire during Ashoka’s reign (c. 232 BCE). Samudragupta, while marching through the present-day Chotanagpur region, directed the first attack against the kingdom of Dakshina Kosala in the Mahanadi valley.

Medieval period

In the 7th century, Chinese traveller Xuanzang passed through the region. He described the kingdom as Karnasuvarna and Shashanka as its ruler. To the north of Karn-Suberna was Magadha, Champa was in east, Mahendra in the west and Orissa in the south.

During medieval period, the region ruled by Nagvanshi, Pala, Khayaravala, Ramgarh Raj and Chero ruler. A Buddhist monastery has been found in Hazaribagh which was built during the Pala rule in 10th century. The Mughal influence reached Palamu during the reign of Emperor Akbar when it was invaded by Raja Mansingh in 1574. Several invasion took place during Mughal rule. During the reign of Nagvanshi King Madhu Singh, Akbar’ general invaded Khukhra. Also there was invasion during region of Durjan Sal.

Modern period

The King Medini Ray, ruled from 1658 to 1674 in Palamau.[31] His rule extended to areas in South Gaya and Hazaribagh. He attacked Navratangarh and defeated the Nagvanshi Maharaja of Chhotanagpur. The Chero rule in Palamu region lasted till 19th CE, until internal conflict between various factions weakened the Cheros and they were defeated by the East India Company. Later Palamu estate was sold by the British.

Navratangarh fort

During 18th century, region under Kings of Chero dynasty, Nagvanshi dynasty, Ramgarh and Kharagdiha became parts of territories of East India Company. Ramgarh Raj along with estates of other chiefs in the regions was permanently settled as Zamindari estate. The Kharagdiha Rajas were settled as Rajas of Raj Dhanwar in 1809, and the Kharagdiha gadis were separately settled as zamindari estates. Some of the notable Kharagdiha Zamindari estates were Koderma, Gadi Palganj and Ledo Gadi. The Princely states in Chota Nagpur Plateau, came within the sphere of influence of the Maratha Empire, but they became tributary states of British East India Company as a result of the Anglo-Maratha Wars known as Chota Nagpur Tributary States.

The subjugation, colonization and tax imposition by the British East India Company resulted in spontaneous resistance from the local people. The first revolt against the British East India Company was led by Raghunath Mahato, in 1769.

In 1771, the revolt against the landlords and the British government was led by Tilka Majhi, a Paharia leader in Rajmahal Hills. Soon after in 1779, the Bhumij tribes rose in arms against the British rule in Manbhum, called Chuar Rebellion. In 1807, the Oraons in Barway murdered their landlord from Srinagar. Munda tribe rose in revolt in 1811 and 1813. Bakhtar Say and Mundal Singh, two landowners, fought against the British East India Company in 1812.

The Hos in Singhbhum revolted in 1820, Kol revolt in 1832 West Bengal. Also in 1832 Bhumijs again revolted against the British under the leadership of Ganga Narayan Singh, known as Bhumij Rebellion.

The Santhal rebellion broke out in 1855 under the leadership of two brothers Sidhu and Kanhu.

Thakur Vishwanath Shahdeo and Pandey Ganpat Rai rebelled against the British East India Company in the 1857 rebellion. In the Battle of Chatra, conflict took place between the rebels and the East India company. Tikait Umrao Singh, Sheikh Bhikhari, Nadir Ali and Jai Mangal Singh played pivotal role in the Indian Rebellion of 1857. The brothers Nilambar and Pitambar were chiefs of Bhogta clan of the Kharwar tribe, who held ancestral jagirs with many Chero Jagirdars led revolt against British East India company.

After the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the rule of the British East India Company was transferred to the Crown in the person of Queen Victoria, who, in 1876, was proclaimed Empress of India. The Cheros and Kharwars again rebelled against the British in 1882 but the attack was repulsed. Then Birsa Munda revolt,[43] broke out in 1895 and lasted till 1900. The revolt though mainly concentrated in the Munda belt of Khunti, Tamar, Sarwada and Bandgaon.

In October 1905, the exercise of British influence over the predominantly Hindi-speaking states of Chang Bhakar, Jashpur, Koriya, Surguja, and Udaipur was transferred from the Bengal government to that of the Central Provinces, while the two Oriya-speaking states of Gangpur and Bonai were attached to the Orissa Tributary States, leaving only Kharsawan and Saraikela answerable to the Bengal governor.

In 1936, all nine states were transferred to the Eastern States Agency, the officials of which came under the direct authority of the Governor-General of India, rather than under that of any provinces.

In March 1940, INC 53rd Session was accomplished under the presidency of Maulana Abul Qalam Azad at Jhanda Chowk, Ramgarh now Ramgarh Cantonment. Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, Sardar Patel, Dr. Rajendra Prasad, Sarojini Naidu, Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, Acharya J.B. Kripalani, Industrialist Jamnalal Bajaj and others greats leaders of Indian freedom movement attended the Ramgarh Session. Mahatma Gandhi also opened khadi and village Industries Exhibition at Ramgarh.

At that time, under the leadership of Netajee Subhas Chandra Bose conference against Samjhauta was also completed. In Ramgarh, Subhas Chandra Bose was seen as president of All India Forward Block and M.N. Roy was seen as leader of Radical democratic party.

Post Independence

After Indian independence in 1947, the rulers of the states chose to accede to the Dominion of India. Changbhakar, Jashpur, Koriya, Surguja and Udaipur later became part of Madhya Pradesh state, but Gangpur and Bonai became part of Orissa state, and Kharsawan and Saraikela part of Bihar state. In 1912, the state of Jharkhand was first proposed by a student of St.Columba’s College in Hazaribagh. Initially, in 1928, it was demand of Unnati Samaj, political wing of Christian Tribals Association, which submitted a memorandum to Simon Commission to constitute a tribal state in eastern India. Prominent leader like Jaipal Singh Munda and Ram Narayan Singh demanded a separate state. In 1955, Jharkhand Party led by Jaipal Singh Munda submitted memorandum to States Reorganization Commission for separate Jharkhand state, but it was rejected due to there was many languages and no link language in the region, tribal were not in majority and adverse effects on economy after separation from Bihar. In 1972, Binod Bihari Mahato, Shibu Soren and A. K. Roy founded Jharkhand Mukti Morcha. Nirmal Mahto founded All Jharkhand Students Union. They spearheaded movement for separate state of Jharkhand. The All Jharkhand Students Union introduced elements of violence in the movement and called for boycott of election while Jharkhand Mukti Morcha opposed it. Due to differences these party parted away from each other. There was a provision for limited internal autonomy in the hill area of Assam. Other tribal area were covered by the fifth schedule of the constitution. Chotanagpur and Santal Pargana development board constituted under the chairmanship of then Chief minister of Bihar under the provision of fifth schedule in 1972. It failed to meet desire result.

Jharkhand co-ordination committee led by then Congress General Secretary Ram Ratan Ram, who urged Rajiv Gandhi to pay attention to the issue at hand.

Congress General Secretary Mr. Ram Ratan Ram’s letter to PM Mr. Rajiv Gandhi on the issue of the state of Jharkhand
The committee consisting Ram Dayal Munda, Dr. B.P. Keshri, Binod Bihari Mahato, Santosh Rana and Suraj Singh Besra started fresh initiative in the matter. Dr. B.P. Keshri sent memorandum to form Jharkhand state. Centre government formed a committee on Jharkhand matter in 1989. It stressed the need of greater allocation of the development funds for the area. The Jharkhand Area Autonomous Council bill passed in Bihar legislative assembly in December 1994. The Jharkhand Area Autonomous Council have given charge of 40 subjects including agriculture, rural health, public work, public health and minerals. The council has power to recommend for legislation to the Assembly through the state government and to frames bylaws and regulations.

In 1998, when the separate state movement was falling apart, Justice Lal Pingley Nath Shahdeo had led the movement. In 1998, the Union government decided to send the bill concerning formation of Jharkhand state to Bihar Legislative Assembly to which Lalu Prasad Yadav had said that the state would be divided over his dead body. A total of 16 political parties including the Bharatiya Janata Party, Jharkhand Mukti Morcha, All Jharkhand Students Union and Congress came in one platform and formed the ‘All Party Separate State Formation Committee’ to start the movement. Shahdeo was elected as the convener of the committee. The voting on Jharkhand Act was to be done on 21 September 1998 in Bihar legislation. On that day the committee, under the leadership of Shahdeo called for Jharkhand Bandh and organised a protest march. Thousands of supporters of separate state took to streets in leadership of Shahdeo. He was arrested and detained in police station for hours along with many supporters.

After the last Assembly election in the state resulted in a hung assembly, RJD’s Independence on the Congress extended support on the precondition that RJD would not pose a hurdle to the passage of the Bihar reorganisation Bill. Finally, with the support from both RJD and Congress, the ruling coalition at the Centre led by the Bharatiya Janata Party which had made statehood its main poll plank in the region in successive polls earlier, cleared the Bihar reorganisation Bill in the monsoon session of the Parliament that year, thus paving the way for the creation of a separate Jharkhand state comprising Chota Nagpur Division and Santhal Pargana Division of South Bihar. NDA formed the government and Babulal Marandi took the oath of chief minister on 15 November 2000 on the birth anniversary of tribal leader Birsa Munda.

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